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Smoking is one of the Main Cardiovascular Risk Factors

There is a string link between smoking and cardiovascular diseases – one of every three deaths from cardiovascular diseases can be linked with smoking, and nearly 40% of all deaths from smoking can be attributed to cardiovascular diseases! Read more


Heart Bypass Surgery

Heart bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass surgery is used to replace the damaged arteries in the heart muscle. A surgeon uses blood vessels taken from another area of your body to repair the damaged arteries.

This surgery is done when coronary arteries become blocked or damaged. These Arteries may supply the heart with an oxygenated blood. If these arteries are blocked or blood flow is restricted, then the heart doesn’t work properly. This can lead to heart failure.

Types of heart bypass surgery:

Doctor will recommend a certain type of bypass surgery that depends on how many of the arteries are blocked.

  • Single bypass: only one artery is blocked
  • Double bypass: two arteries are blocked
  • Triple bypass: three arteries are blocked
  • Quadruple bypass: four arteries are blocked

Risk of having a heart attack, heart failure, or any other cardiac issues will depends on the number of arteries that are blocked. Blockage in more arteries also means that the surgery may take longer or become more complex.


When a material in the blood (plaque) builds up on the arterial walls, less blood flows into the heart muscle. The muscle is more likely to become exhausted and fail if it’s not receiving enough blood. Any damage this creates most often affects the left ventricle, the heart’s primary pump. Doctor will recommend to have heart bypass surgery if the coronary arteries has too narrowed or blocked that will runs in a high risk of the heart attack.

This condition is called coronary artery disease, or atherosclerosis. Doctor will recommend bypass surgery when the blockage is too severe to manage with the medication or other treatments.


Any open-heart surgery,heart bypass surgery that carries risks. All surgeries come with the chance of problems. There is still a risk for some complications after surgery. These complications could include:

  • Bleeding
  • Arrhythmia
  • Blood Clots
  • Chest Pain
  • Infection
  • Kidney Failure
  • Low-Grade Fever
  • Temporary Or Permanent Memory Loss
  • Heart Attack Or Stroke


Some medical conditions can complicate surgery or eliminate it as a possibility.

Conditions that can cause complications include:

  • Diabetes
  • Emphysema
  • Kidney Disease
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)

Discuss these issues with the doctor before scheduling the surgery. Also need to talk about the surgery with the family, medical history and also any prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medications are taking. Planned surgery outcomes are usually better than emergency surgery.


Doctor recommends heart bypass surgery, they will give you complete instructions on how to prepare. If the surgery was scheduled in advance it is not an emergency procedure, also to have several preoperative appointments will be asked about the health and the family medical history. Also need to undergo for several tests to help the doctor to get an accurate picture of your health. These test may also include:

  • Blood Samples
  • Chest X-Ray
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG Or EKG)
  • Angiogram

Aortic Valve Replacement Surgery

Aortic valve replacement is a procedure in which aortic valve is replaced with an artificial heart valve. The aortic valve can be affected by a range of diseases. The valve can either become leaky (aortic insufficiency) or partially blocked (aortic stenosis). Current aortic valve replacement also includes in  open heart surgery via a sternotomy, minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

The aortic valve functions as  one-way valve between the heart and to rest of the body. Then the blood is pumped from the left ventricle of the heart, through the valve, and down the aorta, which in turn supplies blood to all of the organs in the body .Between heart contractions, the valve closes, preventing blood from flowing backwards into the heart.

The function of the aortic valve is then twofold:

  • It provides a route for which blood can leave the heart.
  • It prevents blood that it has already left the heart from leaking backwards into the heart.

Damage to the aortic valve can occurs  congenital defect, the natural aging process, and from the infection or scarring. This damage may cause the valve either in “leak”, resulting in “aortic insufficiency” or to become it “restricted” and not open fully, resulting in “aortic stenosis”. Both aortic insufficiency and aortic stenosis create an extra workload for the heart. Ultimately resulting in weakening of the heart muscle and eventual heart failure. Once if the  valve becomes damaged, it might need to be replaced, in order to prevent from the heart failure and premature death.


Surgery to replace an aortic valve slideshow.gif is done for aortic valve stenosis and aortic valve regurgitation. During the surgery, the damaged valve will be removed and it is replaced with an artificial valve. The valve replacement is typically an open-heart surgery.

A minimally invasive surgery or a catheter procedure to replace the aortic valve may be an option for some people.

How is the surgery done?

During the open-heart valve surgery, doctor makes a large incision in the chest. Blood is circulated outside of the body through a machine to add oxygen to it (cardiopulmonary bypass or heart-lung machine). The heart will be cooled to slow or stop the heartbeat. So that the heart will be protected from damage while the surgery is done to replace the valve with an artificial valve.

When it is necessary to replace the aortic valve?

The aortic valve is to be replaced for two reasons:

  • The valve becomes narrow (aortic stenosis) and then the opening of the valve becomes smaller, obstructing the flow of blood out of the heart
  • The valve is leaky (aortic regurgitation) then the valve allows blood to flow back through into the heart

The problems can get worse over time and in severe cases can lead to life-threatening problems such as heart failure, if left untreated.

 How is an aortic valve replacement carried out?

An aortic valve replacement is to be carried out under the general anaesthetic. This means you’ll be asleep during the operation and won’t feel any pain while it’s carried out.

During the procedure:

  • A large cut (incision) about 25cm long is made in your chest to access your heart – although sometimes a smaller cut may be made
  • Heart is stopped and a heart-lung (bypass) machine is used to take over the job of the heart during the operation
  • The damaged or faulty valve is removed and replaced with the new one
  • your heart is restarted and the opening in your chest is closed

Risks of an aortic valve replacement:-

An aortic valve replacement is a big operation and, like any type of surgery, carries a risk of complications.

Risks of an aortic valve replacement includes are as follows:

  • Wound, lung, bladder or heart valve infections
  • Blood clots
  • Strokes
  • A temporarily irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
  • Reduced kidney function for a few days

The risk of dying from an aortic valve replacement is around 1-3%, although this risk is much smaller than that of leaving severe aortic valve problems untreated.


HeartBurn Symptoms and Treatments

Heartburn is a painful burning feeling in chest or throat

Heartburn is a burning sensation in the chest behind the breastbone. Heartburn may be temporary or chronic. It is treated with lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medications.

Causes of Heartburn:

It happens when stomach acid backs up into your esophagus, the tube that carries food from your mouth to your stomach.The acid back flow may be worse when the affected bents over or lying down. If you ignore it can lead to ulcer, GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) and sometimes may increase the risk of esophageal cancer.

Symptoms of Heartburn:

The symptoms of heartburn include pain in the arm or difficulty in breathing, jaw, pain while lying or bending , burning or severe chest pain or pressure.

Risks and Complications of Heartburn:

In general, certain spicy foods, citrus products, onions, carbonated beverages ,processed tomato products and fried foods increase the risk of heartburn. The complications of heartburn are evident as gastroesophageal reflux disease, if neglected may damage the esophagus.

Tests & Diagnosis of Heartburn:

The doctor looks for the symptoms of heartburn. To confirm heartburn, the doctor may advice for Endoscopy, X-ray, Ambulatory acid probe tests and Esophageal motility tests, which helps to know the shape and condition of the stomach and esophagus.

Treatment for Heartburn:

Avoid all drinks and foods that cause heartburn. Quit smoking and beverages. Over the counter medication may offer temporary relief. However, long-term treatment under the supervision of a gastroenterologist is greatly advised.

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