Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease is a slow progressive loss of  kidney function .Eventually, the patient has permanent kidney failure.

Chronic kidney disease, also known as chronic renal failure, chronic renal disease, or chronic kidney failure, is much more widespread than people realize; it often goes undetected and undiagnosed until the disease is well advanced.

Kidney failure advances and the organ’s functioning  is severely impaired, dangerous levels of waste and fluid can rapidly build up in the body. Treatment is aimed by stopping or slowing down the progression of the disease ,this is usually done by controlling its underlying cause.

Chronic kidney disease symptoms:

Chronic kidney failure, is opposed to have an acute kidney failure is slow and gradually progressive the disease. Even if one kidney stops functioning, the other can carry out normal functions. The disease is fair well advanced and the condition has to become severe that signs and symptoms are noticeable by which time most of the damage is irreversible.

The most common signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease include :

  • Anemia
  • Blood in urine
  • Dark urine
  • Decreased mental alertness
  • Decreased urine output
  • Edema – swollen feet, hands, and ankles (face if edema is severe)
  • Fatigue (tiredness)
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Insomnia
  • Itchy skin, can become persistent

Chronic kidney disease causes:

Kidneys carry out the complex system of filtration in our bodies – excess waste and fluid material are removed from the blood and excreted from the body.

In the majority of cases, progressive kidney damage is the result of a chronic disease (a long-term disease), such as:

  • Diabetes : Chronic kidney disease is linked to diabetes types 1 and 2. If the patient’s diabetes is not well controlled, excess sugar (glucose) can accumulate in the blood. Kidney disease is not common during the first 10 years of diabetes; it more commonly occurs 15-25 years after diagnosis of diabetes.
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure) : High blood pressure can damage the glomeruli – parts of the kidney involved in filtering waste products.
  • Kidney diseases: Including polycystic kidney disease, pyelonephritis, or glomerulonephritis.
  • Kidney artery stenosis : The renal artery narrows or is blocked before it enters the kidney.
  • Malaria and yellow fever : Known to cause impaired kidney function.
  • Fetal developmental problem : If the kidneys do not develop properly in the unborn baby while it is developing in the womb.

Chronic kidney disease diagnosis:

  • Blood test : It may be ordered to determine whether waste substances are being adequately filtered out. If levels of urea and creatinine are persistently high, the doctor will most likely diagnose end-stage kidney disease.
  • Urine test : A urine test helps find out whether there is either blood or protein in the urine.
  • Kidney scans : kidney scans may include a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, computed tomography (CT) scan, or an ultrasound scan.It is to determine that there are any blockages in the urine flow.These scans can be reveal the size and shape of the kidneys in advanced stage of kidney disease .The kidneys are smaller and have an uneven shape.
  • Kidney biopsy : a small sample of kidney tissue is extracted and examined for cell damage. Analysis of kidney tissue makes it easier to a precise diagnosis of kidney disease.

Chest X-ray –  Here, it is to check for pulmonary edema (fluid retained in the lungs).

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) – GFR is a test that measures the glomerular filtration rate – it compares the levels of waste products in the patient’s blood and urine. GFR measures that how many milliliters of waste the kidneys can filter per minute. Kidneys of healthy individuals can typically filter it over 90 ml per minute.

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