Whenever we hear about cancer, the first thought that strikes us is “Chemotherapy”. Chemotherapy is often the most common term associated with cancer. It is considered one of the effective way to treat cancer among other cancer treatments. Here is a detailed article which helps you to understand the key points about chemotherapy.


The short answer is a Neurologist!

But this is probably a bit of an oversimplification. In fact, your recovery from stroke will involve at least three different types of practitioners, starting with your primary care Doctor. Not only can it take from minutes to hours – stroke patients do not have this kind of time – to get hold of a neurologist, your primary care Doctor is also very well equipped to determine whether or not you are actually suffering a stroke attack. And if they feel that you indeed are suffering from something acute, they can always start the process of evaluating your symptom, and perform all the basic tests before referring you to a specialist, who would need those tests anyway.

Exams and Tests

The first test that your primary care Doctor can perform before he hands over your case to a specialist is the CT scan or an MRI to help confirm the presence of a bleeding in the brain and to determine the exact location thereof. The test will also help establish whether it’s an ischemic stroke or a hemorrhagic stroke. The additional test that your Doctor will typically recommend will include:

  • Electrocardiogram or ECG
  • Blood tests to check Complete blood count (CBC), Blood sugar, Electrolytes, Liver and kidney function, Prothrombin time and INR.

If your Doctor feels that you have a narrowing in the carotid artery, he may order below mentioned additional tests:

  • Carotid ultrasound/Doppler scan
  • Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA)
  • CT angiogram and Carotid angiogram
  • Echocardiogram, or Holter monitoring, or Telemetry test to rule out heart-related complications

Identifying and Treating Stroke

While a Neurologist is on the way, your primary care Doctor will want to identify the type of stroke, its location, and the extent of damage that has been caused to the brain. He will also want to rule out other conditions and, to that end, he will:

  • Inquire about your symptoms, when they started, and any medical history
  • Check your level of consciousness, ability to move, coordination, and balance
  • Check for numbness or weakness in the body, and vision or speech impairment


Once your primary care Doctor has ascertained stroke, and the affected area of the brain, the next course of action will be a Thrombolytic Therapy, which is the procedure to dissolve the clots in blood vessels, thereby improving blood flow, and preventing damage to tissues and organs – in this case, the brain.The procedure might also involve removing the clot, or physically breaking it up. Since this procedure involves using a long catheter to deliver a clot-busting drug directly to the site of the blockage in the brain, your primary care Doctor will defer it to a trained Neurologist.

Your Neurologist will most likely use one of the below-mentioned drugs, also known as Thrombolytic Agents:

  • Eminase (anistreplase)
  • Retavase (reteplase)
  • Streptase (streptokinase, kabikinase)
  • t-PA (class of drugs that includes Activase)
  • TNKase (tenecteplase)
  • Abbokinase, Kinlytic (urokinase)

Stroke Rehabilitation

Once your primary care Doctor and Neurologist have worked together to remove the blood clot or the bleeding from the brain, a therapist will take over to ensure proper post-operative care, including stroke rehabilitation, the goal of which is to help you reacquire the skills that were lost because of the stroke. The actual length of this therapy will vary depending on the severity of the stroke and damage caused, but will typically last from few months to even years after the stroke.

The therapy will primarily focus on two areas:

  • Physical activities – These will include motor-skill exercises to help improve your muscle strength, mobility training to help stabilize and strengthen your body while you relearn to walk, constraint-induced therapy to reduce your dependency on the unaffected limb, and range-of-motion therapy to ease muscle tension and spasticity.
  • Cognitive and emotional activities– These will include therapy for cognitive disorders to help you with lost cognitive abilities such as memory and problem-solving, therapy for communication disorders to help you regain lost abilities in speaking and comprehension, and psychological evaluation to test your emotional adjustment and prescribe counseling or a support group.

So this will be the team of health professionals that will assist you in your journey to recovery from a stroke. However, it will all still depend on whether or not the patient reached a hospital within 3 to 4 hours of suffering the stroke. To that end, the importance of performing the B.E.F.A.S.T. test (Balance loss; Eye-sight impairment; Face drooping; Arm weakness; Speech difficulty; Time to act) on a person who is showing the symptoms of stroke, cannot be emphasized enough. If a loved one has failed the B.E.F.A.S.T. test, contact us at 8008104199 immediately to properly diagnose the issue and evaluate treatment options available to you!


“I’ll do it later”, “just 5 more minutes of gaming”, “it’s not that important a task”, “let me watch this video first”, “one more episode”, “let’s start with the low-hanging fruits” –


Snoring is a common condition that can affect anyone, although it occurs more frequently in men and people who are overweight. Snoring has a tendency to worsen with age.

1. Change Your Sleep Position:
Lying on your back makes the base of your tongue and soft palate collapse to the back wall of your throat, causing a vibrating sound during sleep. Sleeping on one side may help you to prevent this.

A body pillow (a full-length pillow that supports your entire body) provides an easy fix. It enables you to maintain sleeping on your side and can make a dramatic difference.

2. Lose Weight:
Weight loss helps some people but not to everyone. Thin people may snore, too. If you have gained more weight then also you might start snoring. If you gain more weight around the neck, then it squeezes the internal diameter of the throat, making it more likely to collapse during the sleep, triggering snoring

3. Avoid Alcohol:
Alcohol and sedatives can reduce the resting tone of the muscles in the back of the throat it might get snoring. Drinking alcohol four to five hours before the sleep makes snoring very worse. People who don’t snore normally will snore after drinking alcohol.

4. Practice Good Sleep Hygiene:
Poor sleep hygiene can have an effect similar to that of drinking alcohol. Working long hours without enough sleep can also lead to snoring. If you sleep hard and deep, then the the muscles become floppier, which creates snoring.

5. Open Nasal Passages:
If snoring starts in the nose, need to keep nasal passages open it may help you to stop the snoring. It allows air to move slower. Imagine a narrow garden hose with water running through, and it will narrower the hose, faster the water rushes through.

Nasal passages work similarly, if the nose is clogged or narrowed due to cold or other blockage, the fast-moving air is more likely it gets snoring.

A hot shower before going to the bed can help open nasal passages. Also, keep a bottle of saltwater rinse in the shower. Nasal strips may also work to lift nasal passages and open them up if the problem exists in your nose and not within the soft palate.

6. Change Your Pillows:
Allergens in the bedroom and in the pillow may contribute in getting snoring. When did you last dust the overhead ceiling fan? Replace the pillows? Dust mites accumulate in pillows and can cause allergic reactions that can lead to snoring. Allowing pets to sleep on the bed can cause you to breathe in animal dander, another common irritant.

Put the pillows in the air fluff cycle once every couple weeks and replace them every six months to keep dust mites and allergens to a minimum. And keep pets out of the bedroom.

7. Stay Well Hydrated.
Drink plenty of fluids. Secretions in the nose and soft palate will become stickier when you are dehydrated can create more snoring. Healthy women will have about 11 cups of total water (from all drinks and food) a day, for men will require about 16 cups.

Overall, get enough sleep, sleep on a side, need to avoid alcohol before the bedtime and take a hot shower if the nasal passages are clogged.



Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges. The meninges are the three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can occur when fluid surrounding the meninges becomes infected.

The most common causes of meningitis are viral and bacterial infections. Other causes may include:

  • Cancer
  • Chemical irritation
  • Fungi
  • Drug allergies

Viral and bacterial meningitis are contagious. They can be transmitted by coughing, sneezing, or close contact.

Types of Meningitis:

Viral and bacterial infections are the common causes of meningitis. There are several other forms of meningitis.

Viral Meningitis

Viral meningitis is the most common type of meningitis. Viruses in the Enterovirus category cause 85 percent of the cases. These are more common during the summer and fall, and they include:

  • Coxsackievirus A
  • Coxsackievirus B
  • Echoviruses

Viruses in the Enterovirus category cause about 10 to 15 million infections per year, but only a small percentage of people who get infected will develop meningitis.

Other viruses that can cause meningitis include:

  • West Nile virus
  • Influenza
  • Mumps
  • HIV
  • Measles
  • Herpes viruses
  • Coltivirus, which causes Colorado tick fever

Viral meningitis typically goes away without treatment.

Bacterial Meningitis:

Bacterial meningitis is contagious and it is caused by the infection from a certain bacteria. It can be fatal if left untreated. Between 5 to 40 percent of children and 20 to 50 percent of adults, with this condition, die. This is true even with proper treatment.

Symptoms of Meningitis:

Symptoms of meningitis can vary depending on the age. The symptoms of Meningitis are as follows:

Viral Meningitis Symptoms:

Viral meningitis in infants may cause:

  • Decreased appetite
  • Irritability
  • Sleepiness
  • Lethargy
  • A fever

In adults, viral meningitis may cause:

  • Headaches
  • A fever
  • Stiff neck
  • Seizures
  • Sensitivity to bright light
  • Sleepiness
  • Lethargy
  • Nausea
  • Decreased appetite

Bacterial Meningitis Symptoms

Bacterial meningitis symptoms develop suddenly. They may include:

  • Altered mental status
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • A sensitivity to light
  • Irritability
  • A headache
  • A fever
  • Stiff neck

Seek immediate medical attention if you experience these symptoms. Bacterial meningitis can be deadly. There’s no way to know if you have bacterial or viral meningitis just by judging how you feel.

Risk Factors for Meningitis:

Some of the risk factors for meningitis are as follows:

Compromised Immunity:

People with an immune deficiency are more vulnerable to infections. This includes the infections that cause meningitis. Certain disorders and treatments can weaken your immune system. These include:

  • HIV
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Chemotherapy
  • Organ or bone marrow transplants

Cryptococcal meningitis, caused by a fungus, is the most common form of meningitis in the people who have HIV or AIDS.

Community Living:

Meningitis is easily spread when people live in close quarters. Being in small spaces increase the chance of exposure. Examples of these locations include:

  • College dormitories
  • Barracks
  • Boarding schools
  • Day care centers


Pregnant women have an increased risk of listeriosis, which is an infection caused by the Listeria bacteria. Infection can spread to the unborn child.


All ages are at risk for meningitis. However, certain age groups have a higher risk. Children under the age of 5 are at an increased risk of viral meningitis.

Working with Animals:

Farm workers and others who work with animals have an increased risk of infection with Listeria.


Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation is an irregularity and often occurs as rapid heart rate that can increase the risk of stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications.

During atrial fibrillation, the heart’s two upper chambers (the atria) beat chaotically and irregularly out of coordination with the two lower chambers (the ventricles) of the heart. Atrial fibrillation includes the symptoms like heart palpitations, shortness of breath and weakness.


Some people with atrial fibrillation have no symptoms and are unaware of their condition until it’s discovered during a physical examination. Those who have atrial fibrillation symptoms may experience the following signs and symptoms:

  • Palpitations, which are sensations of a racing, uncomfortable, irregular heartbeat or a flip-flopping in the chest
  • Weakness
  • Reduced ability to exercise
  • Fatigue
  • Lightheadedness
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain

Atrial fibrillation may be:

  • Occasional:

In this case it is called as paroxysmal (par-ok-SIZ-mul) atrial fibrillation. These symptoms may come and go, lasting for a few minutes to few hours and then stopping on their own.

  • Persistent:

With this type of atrial fibrillation, your heart rhythm doesn’t go back to normal on its own. If the persistent atrial fibrillation occurs, they need the treatment such as an electrical shock or medications in order to restore the heart rhythm.

  • Long-standing persistent:

This type of atrial fibrillation is continuous and lasts longer than 12 months.

  • Permanent:

In this type of atrial fibrillation, the abnormal heart rhythm can’t be restored. You will have atrial fibrillation permanently, and often it require medications to control the heart rate.


Atrial fibrillation is irregular and a often rapid heart rate that occurs when the two upper chambers of your heart (atria) experience chaotic electrical signals.

Heart consists of four chambers, they are two upper chambers (atria) and two lower chambers (ventricles). Within the upper right chamber of the heart (right atrium) is a group of cells called the sinus node. This is the heart’s natural pacemaker. The sinus node produces the impulse that starts to each heartbeat.

Normally, the impulse travels first through the atria and then through a connecting pathway between the upper and lower chambers of your heart called the atrioventricular (AV) node. As the signal passes from the sinus node through the atria, it gets contraction and pumping blood from the atria into the ventricles below. As the signal passes through the AV node to the ventricles, it signals the ventricles to contract, pumping blood out to your body.

In atrial fibrillation, the upper chambers of the heart (atria) experience chaotic electrical signals. As a result, they quiver. The AV node is the electrical connection between the atria and the ventricles is bombarded with impulses trying to get through to the ventricles.

The ventricles can beat rapidly, but it is not much as the atria, as not all the impulses get through. The reason is that the AV node is like a highway on-ramp – only so many vehicles can get on at one time.

Risk factors:

Certain factors may increase the risk of developing atrial fibrillation.

These include:

  • Age:

The older you are, the greater the risk of developing atrial fibrillation.

  • Heart disease:

Anyone with heart diseases such as heart valve problems, congenital heart disease, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, or a history of heart attack or heart surgery  has an increased risk of atrial fibrillation.

  • High blood pressure:

Blood pressure issues, especially when they are not well-controlled with the lifestyle changes or medications, can increase the risk of atrial fibrillation.

  • Other chronic conditions

People with certain chronic conditions such as thyroid problems, sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, chronic kidney disease or lung disease have an increased risk of atrial fibrillation.

  • Drinking alcohol:

Drinking alcohol can cause of atrial fibrillation. Binge drinking may put you at an even higher risk.

  • Obesity:

People who are obese are at higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation.

  • Family history:

An increased risk of atrial fibrillation is present in some families.


Chronic sinusitis is a common condition in which the cavities around nasal passages (sinuses) become inflamed and swollen for at least 12 weeks, despite treatment attempts. Chronic sinusitis can be brought on by an infection, by growths in the sinuses (nasal polyps) or by a deviated nasal septum. The condition most commonly affects young and middle-aged adults, but it also can affect children.


Signs and symptoms of chronic sinusitis must be present with the confirmation of nasal inflammation for a diagnosis. These are:

  • Thick, discolored discharge from the nose or drainage down the back of the throat (postnasal drainage)
  • Nasal obstruction or congestion, causing difficulty breathing through your nose
  • Pain, tenderness and swelling around the eyes, cheeks, nose or forehead
  • Reduced sense of smell and taste in adults or cough in children

Other signs and symptoms can include:

  • Ear pain
  • Aching in your upper jaw and teeth
  • Cough that might worsen at night
  • Sore throat
  • Bad breath (halitosis)
  • Fatigue or irritability
  • Nausea

Chronic sinusitis and acute sinusitis have similar signs and symptoms, but the acute sinusitis is a temporary infection of the sinuses that is often associated with a cold.

Common causes of chronic sinusitis include:

  • Nasal polyps: Abnormal tissue growths can block the nasal passages or sinuses.
  • Deviated nasal septum: A crooked septum of the wall between the nostrils may restrict or block the sinus passages.
  • Other medical conditions: Complications of cystic fibrosis, gastroesophageal reflux or HIV and other immune system related diseases that can results in nasal blockage.
  • Respiratory tract infections: Infections in the respiratory tract are mostly  common colds that can inflame and thicken the sinus membranes and thereby  block mucus drainage. These infections can be viral, bacterial or fungal.
  • Allergies : Allergies such as hay fever. The Inflammation which occurs with the allergies can block the sinuses.

Risk factors:

  • A nasal passage abnormality, such as a deviated nasal septum or nasal polyps
  • Asthma, which is highly connected to chronic sinusitis
  • Aspirin sensitivity that causes respiratory symptoms
  • An immune system disorder, such as HIV/AIDS or cystic fibrosis
  • Hay fever or another allergic condition that also affects sinuses

Chronic sinusitis complications include:

  • Meningitis: This infection causes inflammation of the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord.
  • Other infections: Uncommonly, infection can spread to the bones (osteomyelitis) or skin (cellulitis).
  • Partial or the complete loss of sense of smell: Nasal obstruction and inflammation of the nerve for smell (olfactory nerve) can cause temporary or permanent loss of smell.
  • Vision problems: If the infection spreads to the eye socket, it can cause reduced vision or even blindness, which may be permanent.


Your doctor will feel for tenderness in your nose and face and look inside your nose.

Other methods for diagnosing chronic sinusitis include:

  • Nasal endoscopy: A thin flexible tube (endoscope) with a fiber-optic light is inserted through the nose that allows the doctor to see the inside of the sinuses. This is also known as rhinoscopy.
  • Imaging studies: Images taken using a CT scan or MRI can show details of your sinuses and nasal area. These might be the pinpoint of a deep inflammation or the physical obstruction is difficult to detect by using an endoscope.
  • Nasal and sinus cultures: Cultures are generally unnecessary for diagnosing chronic sinusitis. However, when the condition fails to respond to treatments or is worsening, tissue cultures might help determine the cause, such as bacteria or fungi.



Chronic Gastritis

Chronic gastritis occurs when the stomach lining becomes inflamed in the body. Bacteria, consuming too much alcohol, certain medications, chronic stress, or the other immune system problems can leads to this inflammation. When the inflammation occurs, the stomach lining changes and it loses some of its protective cells. It may cause early satiety. This is where the stomach feels full after eating just a few bites of food.

Chronic gastritis occurs for a long period of time and gradually it will be away at the stomach lining. And it can also cause metaplasia or dysplasia. These are the precancerous changes in the cells can be leads to the cancer if it is untreated.

Types of chronic gastritis:

Several types of chronic gastritis exist, and they can have different causes:

  • Type A is caused by the immune system that destroys the stomach cells. And it can increase the risk of vitamin deficiencies, anemia, and cancer.
  • Type B, is the most common type that caused by Helicobacter pylori bacteria, and also it can cause stomach ulcers, intestinal ulcers, and cancer.
  • Type C is caused by the chemical irritants such as, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), alcohol, or bile. Also it can be cause stomach lining erosion and bleeding.

Other types of gastritis can include giant hypertrophic gastritis,that can be related to the protein deficiencies. It also has eosinophilic gastritis, which happens alongside of other allergic conditions such as asthma or eczema.

Symptoms of Chronic gastritis:

Chronic gastritis doesn’t always result in symptoms. But people who do have symptoms often experience:

  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Indigestion
  • Bloating
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Belching
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss


The following can cause the lining of the stomach and it can leads to the chronic gastritis:

  • Long-term use of certain medications, such as aspirin and ibuprofen
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • The presence of H. pylori bacteria
  • Illnesses, like diabetes or kidney failure
  • A weakened immune system
  • Persistent, intense stress can also affects the immune system
  • Bile flowing into the stomach, or bile reflux


Risk for chronic gastritis will increase if the lifestyle and dietary habits which changes the stomach lining. It may be useful to avoid the following:

  • High-fat diet
  • High-salt diet
  • Smoking

Consumption of alcohol can also leads to the chronic gastritis. A stressful lifestyle or a traumatic experience can also decreases the stomach’s ability to protect itself. In addition, the risk may increases if you have autoimmune diseases or certain illnesses like Crohn’s disease.

Diagnosis :

Doctor will ask about the medical history and the symptoms. A series of tests can be necessary,that includes the following:

  • A test for the bacteria that cause stomach ulcers
  • A stool test to look for stomach bleeding
  • A blood count and an anemia test
  • An endoscopy, in which a camera attached to a long tube is inserted into the mouth and down into the digestive tract




Migraine headache:

Migraine headache has the specific changes within the brain. It causes severe head pain that is often accompanied by sensitivity to light, sound, or smells.

Migraine headaches usually are associated with sensitivity to sound, light, and smells. Some people have symptoms of nausea or vomiting. Migrane headache involves only one side of the head, but in some cases, patients may experience pain bilaterally or on both sides. The pain of a migraine is often described as throbbing or pounding and it may be made worse with physical exertion.

What is migraine with aura?

In some of the cases, patients with migraines can experience specific warning symptoms or an aura, prior to the onset of their headache. These warning symptoms can range from flashing lights or a blind spot in one eye to numbness or weakness involving one side of the body. It may last for several minutes, and then it resolves as the head pain begins or it may last until the headache resolves. For patients who have never experienced an aura, the symptoms can be frightening and can mimic the symptoms of a stroke.

Signs and Symptoms Of Migraine headaches:

The most common symptoms of migraine are:

  • Severely it often pounding, pain, usually on one side of the head
  • Nausea and or vomiting
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Sensitivity to sound
  • Eye pain

 Causes :

The specific cause of migraines is not known, but there may be fluctuations in certain neurotransmitters, chemicals that send messages between brain cells. These are the changes it  may predispose for some of the people to develop migraine headaches.

Risk factors :

 Almost 25% of the people get experiences a migraine headache at some point in their life. Most migraine sufferers are female. It is estimated after the adolescence, the ratio of female to male patients who experience the migraines is about 3:1. It seems that it to be a genetic predisposition to the migraine, as there is often has a strong family history of migraine in the patients with this disorder.

Treatments for migraine headaches:

Treatment for the migraine headaches will depends upon how frequently the headaches may occur and how long the headaches can last.

Prognosis for a person with migraines:

Most of the people who have this migraine headache can find that the headaches may be controlled with the preventive medications and lifestyle changes. Diagnosis of migraine will need to be aware of how their lifestyle may directly impact the frequency and severity of their headache. Controlling migraine triggers may provide substantial benefit. It can be identified as that the patients get older, and aslo there may be a decrease in the frequency of this type of headache and they may disappear after a number of years.

Contact Info

  • NH - 5, Chinthareddypalem Crossroad
  • Nellore, Andhra Pradesh - India
  • Nearest Location: Chennai


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