What Is a Colonoscopy?

In the process of colonoscopy, doctor uses a thin flexible camera to check for abnormalities or disease in the lower intestine or colon.

Colon is the lowest portion of gastrointestinal tract that takes in the food, absorbs nutrients, and disposes off waste. The colon is attached to the anus via the rectum. During colonoscopy, doctor can take tissue samples for biopsy. They can also remove abnormal tissue such as polyps.

Why a Colonoscopy Is Performed?

A colonoscopy can be perform as screening for colon cancer and other problems. The screening can help doctor identify the following:

  • Any existing signs of cancers and other problems
  • Explore the cause of unexplained changes in bowel habits
  • Evaluate symptoms of pain or bleeding located in the abdominal area
  • Find a reason for weight loss, chronic constipation, or diarrhea

Risks of a Colonoscopy:

Colonoscopy is a routine procedure, and there can be lasting effects from this test. In the vast majority of cases, the benefits of detecting problems and beginning treatment far outweigh the risks of complications from a colonoscopy.

Some of the rare complications of a colonoscopy are as follows:

  • Bleeding from a biopsy site if a biopsy was done
  • A reaction to the sedative
  • Tears in the rectal wall or colon

How is a Colonoscopy Performed?

Most of the people get a sedative, usually in the form of a pill. When the procedure is going on, one needs to lie on a side on a padded examination table. Your doctor may position you with your knees close to your chest to get a better angle to your colon.

While you are on a side and sedated, the doctor will guide a flexible, lit tube called a colonoscope into the anus. Gently, they will guide it up through the rectum and into the colon. A camera is  on one  end of the colonoscope that transmits images to the  monitor that  the doctor will be watching.

After Colonoscopy:

After the completion of colonoscopy procedure , one may need to wait for about an hour to allow the sedative wear off. You’ll be advised not to drive for the next 24 hours, until its full effects fade.

In addition, it is likely to  have some gas and bloating from the gas placed by doctor in your colon. Give it time to get out of the system. If it continues for days after, it could mean that there’s a problem and you should contact the  doctor.

A little bit of blood in the  stool after the procedure is normal. However, consult with the  doctor if you continue to pass blood or blood clots, experience abdominal pain, or have a fever over 100°F.

Do you know what an endoscopy is?

Endoscopy:

Endoscopy procedure is an instruments to view and operate  the internal organs and vessels of the body. It allows surgeons to view problems within the body without making large incisions.

A surgeon will inserts an endoscope through a small cut, or an opening in the body such as the mouth. An endoscope is a flexible tube with an attached camera that allows your doctor to see. Doctor can use forceps (tongs) and scissors on the endoscope to operate or remove tissue for biopsy.

Why do I need an Endoscopy?

Doctor may order an endoscopy to visually examine an organ. An endoscope’s lighted camera allows the doctor to view potential problems without a large incision. A screen in the operating room will absorb by the doctor to see exactly what the endoscope sees.

Doctor may suspect that an organ or specific area of the body is infected, damaged, or cancerous. In this case, Doctor may order an endoscopic biopsy. An endoscopic biopsy involves by using forceps in endoscope to remove a small sample of tissue. They will send the sample to a lab for testing.

Doctor will review the symptoms, perform a physical examination, and possibly order some blood tests prior to an endoscopy. These tests will help the  doctor gain a more accurate understanding of the possible cause of the symptoms. These tests may help them to determine that if the problems can be treated without an endoscopy or surgery.

What are the types of Endoscopy?

Endoscopies fall into categories, based on the area of the body that they investigate:

  • Arthroscopy is used to examine the joints. The scope is inserted through a small incision near the joint be examined.
  • Bronchoscopy is used to examine the lungs. The scope is inserted into your nose or mouth.
  • Colonoscopy is used to examine the colon. The scope is inserted through your anus.
  • Cystoscopy is used to examine the bladder. The scope is inserted through urethra, which is the hole through which you urinate.
  • Enteroscopy is used to examine the small intestine. The scope is inserted through the mouth or anus.
  • Hysteroscopy is used for the examining the inside of The scope is inserted through the vagina.
  • Laparoscopy is used to examine the abdominal or pelvic area. The scope is inserted through a small incision near the area that’s being examined.
  • Laryngoscopy is used to examine voice box, or larynx. The scope is inserted through your mouth or nostril.
  • Mediastinoscopy is used to examine the area between the lungs that are called as “mediastinum.” The scope is inserted through an incision above the breastbone.
  • Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is used to examine esophagus and upper intestinal tract. The scope is inserted through the mouth.
  • Ureteroscopy is used to examine the ureter. The scope is inserted through  urethra.

What are the risks of an Endoscopy?

Endoscopy has a lower risk of bleeding and infection than the open surgery. Still, endoscopy is a medical procedure, so it has some risk of bleeding, infection, and other rare complications such as:

  • chest pain
  • damage to your organs, including possible perforation
  • fever
  • persistent pain in the area of endoscopy
  • redness and swelling at the incision site

What happens after an Endoscopy?

Most endoscopies are outpatient procedures. This means you can go home the same day.

Doctor will close incision wounds with stitches and properly bandage them immediately after the procedure. He will give you instructions on how to care for this wound on own.

Some procedures, such as a colonoscopy, may leave you slightly uncomfortable. It may require some time to feel well enough to go about your daily business.

If the doctor suspects a cancerous growth, they’ll perform a biopsy during your endoscopy. The results will take a few days.Doctor will discuss the results with you after they get them back from the laboratory.

7 warning signs that you are unhealthy

    1. Bad skin
    2. The quality of your skin is a sure-fire way to get a reading on your overall level of health. Of course, some people struggle with skin issues like acne and are otherwise perfectly fine — but skin quality can clue you in to some bigger problems. A poor diet can really impact your skin quality, and if you’re noticing blemishes like stretch marks? That should tell you that something is wrong.

    3. Sleep issues
    4. Can’t seem to fall asleep at night? That can be an indication that some aspects of your life need adjusting. Whether it be that you’re eating the wrong foods, ingesting too much caffeine late in the day, or not expelling enough energy during the day, not being able to sleep presents an issue — which cascades into further issues.

    5. Bathroom problems
    6. Yep, we’re getting down and dirty. Take note of the color of your urine, and even how frequently you’re going No. 2 — those could both provide important insight into the state of your overall health. Since you’re going to ask, your urine should be a pale yellow color — and hopefully odorless. As for your bowel movement frequency, there’s a wide range. But if you’re going regularly, you’re probably fine. And don’t ignore the grimy details during your investigation.

    7. Lip balm reliance
    8. If your lips are constantly chapped, and you find that you can’t live without lip balm, that’s your body’s way of telling you that something’s wrong. Specifically, your lip condition is an indicator of your vitamin levels. If your lips are chapped, you may be vitamin strapped — so diversify your diet, and get the nutrients you need.

    9. Bad finger and toe nails
    10. If the condition of your lips wasn’t a solid enough indicator, your finger and toe nails can also give you a heads-up if you’re unhealthy. You’re going to want to be on the lookout for ridges, discoloration, and bumps — all of which should be red flags. Your nails can tell you a lot about your overall state of health, so if something is strange, don’t ignore it.

    11. Body temperature fluctuation
    12. Icy feet and hands aren’t normal. Yes, there could be environmental factors at play, but if you’re consistently finding that your extremities are ice cold, it can be a sign of cardiovascular problems. Specifically, cold hands or feet might mean that you’re having circulation issues, and that your body isn’t getting blood where it needs to go. If this is a chronic issue, have it checked out.

    13. A cloudy mind
    14. It’s becoming quite clear that our cognitive ability and brain health are closely tied to our physical condition. That means that obesity and elevated levels of body fat can have a significant impact on our ability to think and reason. It’s kind of scary, but also a very promising area of research. So, if you can’t formulate a potent thought, it may be a sign that it’s time to drop some weight.

6 Symptoms You Shouldn’t Ignore

1. Weakness in Your Arms and Legs

    • If you get weak or numb in your arm, leg, or face, it can be a sign of a stroke especially if it’s on one side of your body.
    • You could also be having a strokeif you can’t keep your balance, feel dizzy, or have trouble walking.
    • Get help quickly if you suddenly can’t see well, get a bad headache, feel confused, or have problems speaking or understanding.

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2. Chest Pain

    • Any chest pain, especially accompanied by sweating, pressure, shortness of breath, or nausea, should be evaluated by a medical professional right away.
    • Chest pain or pressure can be a sign of heart disease or a heart attack, particularly if you feel it after being active. It may also mean that you have a blood clot moving into your lung.
    • If your chest feels tight or heavy, and it lasts more than a few minutes or goes away and comes back again, get help. Don’t try to tough it out.

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3. Tenderness and Pain in the Back of Your Lower Leg

    • This can be a symptom of a blood clot in your leg. It’s called deep vein thrombosis, or DVT. It can happen after you’ve been sitting for a long time, like on a long plane ride, or if you’re sick and have been in bed a long time.
    • If it’s a blood clot, you may feel the pain mostly when you stand or walk. You may also notice swelling.
    • It’s normal to feel tenderness after exercise. But if you also see redness and feel heat where it’s swollen or painful, call your doctor.
    • It’s important to catch a blood clot before it can break off and block your blood flow, which can lead to complications.

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4. Blood in Your Urine

Several things can cause you to see blood when you pee.

    • If you have blood in your urine and you also feel a lot of pain in your side or in your back, you may have kidney stones. A kidney stone is a small crystal made of minerals and salts that forms in your kidney and moves through the tube that carries your urine.
    • Your doctor may take X-rays or do an ultrasound to see the stones. An X-ray uses radiation in low doses to make images of structures inside your body. An ultrasound makes images with sound waves.
    • Many kidney stones eventually pass through your body when you pee. Sometimes your doctor may need to remove the kidney stone.
    • If you see blood in your urine and you also have an increase in feeling that you urgently need to pee, make frequent trips to the bathroom, or feel burning when you urinate, you may have a severe bladder or kidney infection.
    • If you see blood but don’t feel any pain, it may be a sign of kidney or bladder cancer, so visit your doctor.

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5. Wheezing

    • Breathing problems should be treated right away. If you’re wheezing, or hear a whistling sound when you breathe, see your doctor.
    • “Without urgent evaluation, breathing can quickly become labored, and it can be catastrophic if not evaluated and treated quickly.
    • It may be from asthma, a lung disease, a severe allergy, or exposure to chemicals. Your doctor can figure out what’s causing it and how to treat it. If you have asthma, an allergist will create a plan to manage it and reduce flare-ups.
    • Wheezing can also be caused by pneumonia or bronchitis. Are you coughing up yellow or green mucus? Do you also have a fever or shortness of breath? If so, you may have bronchitis that’s turning into pneumonia. “Time to see your doctor.

For Pulmonology Consultation CLICK HERE

6. Suicidal Thoughts

    • If you feel hopeless or trapped, or think you have no reason to live, get help. Talking to a professional can help you make it through a crisis.
    • Go to a hospital emergency room or a walk-in clinic at a psychiatric hospital. A doctor or mental health professional will talk to you, keep you safe, and help you get through this tough time.

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Indigestion Causes & Prevention

Indigestion

Indigestion (dyspepsia) happens to almost everyone from time to time. It may cause stomach discomfort or a feeling of being too full. When severe, it can cause heartburn, bloating, nausea, and vomiting. Indigestion may be the result of your eating habits, or it can be a chronic problem.

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Symptoms

    • Bloating
    • Belching and gas
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • An acidic taste in your mouth
    • Fullness during or after a meal
    • Growling stomach
    • Burning in your stomach or upper belly
    • Belly pain

Causes

    • Ulcers
    • GERD
    • Stomach cancer. This is rare
    • Gastroparesis, a condition where the stomach doesn’t empty properly. It often happens to people with diabetes
    • Stomach infections
    • Irritable bowel syndrome
    • Pancreatitis, an inflamed pancreas
    • Thyroid disease

How Can I Prevent Indigestion?

The best way to avoid getting it is to steer clear of the foods and situations that seem to cause it. You can keep a food diary to figure out what you eat that gives you trouble. Other ways to prevent the problem:

    • Eat small meals so your stomach doesn’t have to work as hard or as long.
    • Eat slowly.
    • Avoid foods with a lot of acid, such as citrus fruits and tomatoes.
    • Cut back on or avoid foods and drinks that have caffeine.
    • If stress is a trigger, learn new ways to manage it, such as relaxation and biofeedback techniques.
    • If you smoke, quit. Or at least, don’t light up right before or after you eat, since smoking can irritate your stomach.
    • Cut back on alcohol.
    • Avoid wearing tight-fitting clothes. They can put pressure on your stomach, which can make the food you’ve eaten move up into your esophagus.
    • Don’t exercise with a full stomach. Do it before a meal or at least 1 hour after you eat.
    • Don’t lie down right after you’ve eaten.
    • Wait at least 3 hours after your last meal of the day before you go to bed.

Raise the top of your bed so that your head and chest are higher than your feet. You can do this by placing 6-inch blocks under the top bedposts. Don’t use piles of pillows to achieve the same goal. You’ll only put your head at an angle that can increase pressure on your stomach and make heartburn worse.

When Should I Call the Doctor?

Because indigestion can be a sign of a more serious health problem, let your doctor know if you have any of the following symptoms:

    • Vomiting or blood in your vomit. It may look like coffee grounds.
    • Weight loss you can’t explain
    • Loss of appetite
    • Stools that are bloody, black, or tarry
    • Severe pain in your upper-right belly
    • Pain in the upper- or lower-right parts of your belly
    • Feeling uncomfortable even if you haven’t eaten

A heart attack can cause symptoms that feel like indigestion. Get medical help right away if you have shortness of breath, sweating, or pain that spreads along your jaw, neck, or arm.

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Best liver treatment in nellore

What Causes Liver Failure?

The most common causes of chronic liver failure (where the liver fails over months to years) include:

    • Hepatitis B
    • Hepatitis C
    • Long-term alcohol consumption
    • Cirrhosis
    • Hemochromatosis (an inherited disorder that causes the body to absorb and store too much iron)
    • Malnutrition

The causes of acute liver failure, when the liver fails rapidly, however, are often different. These include:

    • Acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdose
    • Viruses including hepatitis A, B, and C (especially in children)
    • Reactions to certain prescription and herbal medications
    • Ingestion of poisonous wild mushrooms

What Are the Symptoms of Liver Failure?

The initial symptoms of liver failure are often ones that can be due to any number or conditions. Because of this, liver failure may be initially difficult to diagnose. Early symptoms include:

    • Nausea
    • Loss of appetite
    • Fatigue
    • Diarrhea

However, as liver failure progresses, the symptoms become more serious, requiring urgent care. These symptoms include:

    • Jaundice
    • Bleeding easily
    • Swollen abdomen
    • Mental disorientation or confusion (known as hepatic encephalopathy)
    • Sleepiness
    • Coma

How Is Liver Failure Treated?

If detected early enough, acute liver failure caused by an overdose of acetaminophen can sometimes be treated and its effects reversed. Likewise, if a virus causes liver failure, supportive care can be given at a hospital to treat the symptoms until the virus runs its course. In these cases, the liver will sometimes recover on its own.

For liver failure that is the result of long-term deterioration, the initial treatment goal may be to save whatever part of the liver is still functioning. If this is not possible, then a liver transplant is required. Fortunately, liver transplant is a common procedure that is often successful.

How Can Liver Failure Be Prevented?

The best way to prevent liver failure is to limit your risk of developing cirrhosis or hepatitis. Here are some tips to help prevent these conditions:

    • Get a hepatitis vaccine or an immunoglobulin shot to prevent hepatitis A or B.
    • Eat a proper diet from all of the food groups.
    • Drink alcohol in moderation. Avoid alcohol when you are taking acetaminophen (Tylenol).
    • Practice proper hygiene. Since germs are commonly spread by hands, be sure to wash your hands thoroughly after you use the bathroom. Also, wash your hands before you touch any food.
    • Don’t handle any blood or blood products.
    • Don’t share any personal toiletry items, including toothbrushes and razors.
    • If you get a tattoo or a body piercing, make sure the conditions are sanitary and all equipment is aseptic (free of disease-causing microorganisms).
    • Be sure to use protection (condoms) when having sex.
    • If you use illegal intravenous drugs, don’t share needles with anyone.

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