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Chronic sinusitis is a common condition in which the cavities around nasal passages (sinuses) become inflamed and swollen for at least 12 weeks, despite treatment attempts. Chronic sinusitis can be brought on by an infection, by growths in the sinuses (nasal polyps) or by a deviated nasal septum. The condition most commonly affects young and middle-aged adults, but it also can affect children.

Symptoms:

Signs and symptoms of chronic sinusitis must be present with the confirmation of nasal inflammation for a diagnosis. These are:

  • Thick, discolored discharge from the nose or drainage down the back of the throat (postnasal drainage)
  • Nasal obstruction or congestion, causing difficulty breathing through your nose
  • Pain, tenderness and swelling around the eyes, cheeks, nose or forehead
  • Reduced sense of smell and taste in adults or cough in children

Other signs and symptoms can include:

  • Ear pain
  • Aching in your upper jaw and teeth
  • Cough that might worsen at night
  • Sore throat
  • Bad breath (halitosis)
  • Fatigue or irritability
  • Nausea

Chronic sinusitis and acute sinusitis have similar signs and symptoms, but the acute sinusitis is a temporary infection of the sinuses that is often associated with a cold.

Common causes of chronic sinusitis include:

  • Nasal polyps: Abnormal tissue growths can block the nasal passages or sinuses.
  • Deviated nasal septum: A crooked septum of the wall between the nostrils may restrict or block the sinus passages.
  • Other medical conditions: Complications of cystic fibrosis, gastroesophageal reflux or HIV and other immune system related diseases that can results in nasal blockage.
  • Respiratory tract infections: Infections in the respiratory tract are mostly  common colds that can inflame and thicken the sinus membranes and thereby  block mucus drainage. These infections can be viral, bacterial or fungal.
  • Allergies : Allergies such as hay fever. The Inflammation which occurs with the allergies can block the sinuses.

Risk factors:

  • A nasal passage abnormality, such as a deviated nasal septum or nasal polyps
  • Asthma, which is highly connected to chronic sinusitis
  • Aspirin sensitivity that causes respiratory symptoms
  • An immune system disorder, such as HIV/AIDS or cystic fibrosis
  • Hay fever or another allergic condition that also affects sinuses

Chronic sinusitis complications include:

  • Meningitis: This infection causes inflammation of the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord.
  • Other infections: Uncommonly, infection can spread to the bones (osteomyelitis) or skin (cellulitis).
  • Partial or the complete loss of sense of smell: Nasal obstruction and inflammation of the nerve for smell (olfactory nerve) can cause temporary or permanent loss of smell.
  • Vision problems: If the infection spreads to the eye socket, it can cause reduced vision or even blindness, which may be permanent.

Diagnosis:

Your doctor will feel for tenderness in your nose and face and look inside your nose.

Other methods for diagnosing chronic sinusitis include:

  • Nasal endoscopy: A thin flexible tube (endoscope) with a fiber-optic light is inserted through the nose that allows the doctor to see the inside of the sinuses. This is also known as rhinoscopy.
  • Imaging studies: Images taken using a CT scan or MRI can show details of your sinuses and nasal area. These might be the pinpoint of a deep inflammation or the physical obstruction is difficult to detect by using an endoscope.
  • Nasal and sinus cultures: Cultures are generally unnecessary for diagnosing chronic sinusitis. However, when the condition fails to respond to treatments or is worsening, tissue cultures might help determine the cause, such as bacteria or fungi.

 

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Chronic Gastritis

Chronic gastritis occurs when the stomach lining becomes inflamed in the body. Bacteria, consuming too much alcohol, certain medications, chronic stress, or the other immune system problems can leads to this inflammation. When the inflammation occurs, the stomach lining changes and it loses some of its protective cells. It may cause early satiety. This is where the stomach feels full after eating just a few bites of food.

Chronic gastritis occurs for a long period of time and gradually it will be away at the stomach lining. And it can also cause metaplasia or dysplasia. These are the precancerous changes in the cells can be leads to the cancer if it is untreated.

Types of chronic gastritis:

Several types of chronic gastritis exist, and they can have different causes:

  • Type A is caused by the immune system that destroys the stomach cells. And it can increase the risk of vitamin deficiencies, anemia, and cancer.
  • Type B, is the most common type that caused by Helicobacter pylori bacteria, and also it can cause stomach ulcers, intestinal ulcers, and cancer.
  • Type C is caused by the chemical irritants such as, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), alcohol, or bile. Also it can be cause stomach lining erosion and bleeding.

Other types of gastritis can include giant hypertrophic gastritis,that can be related to the protein deficiencies. It also has eosinophilic gastritis, which happens alongside of other allergic conditions such as asthma or eczema.

Symptoms of Chronic gastritis:

Chronic gastritis doesn’t always result in symptoms. But people who do have symptoms often experience:

  • Upper abdominal pain
  • Indigestion
  • Bloating
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Belching
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss

Causes:

The following can cause the lining of the stomach and it can leads to the chronic gastritis:

  • Long-term use of certain medications, such as aspirin and ibuprofen
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • The presence of H. pylori bacteria
  • Illnesses, like diabetes or kidney failure
  • A weakened immune system
  • Persistent, intense stress can also affects the immune system
  • Bile flowing into the stomach, or bile reflux

Risks:

Risk for chronic gastritis will increase if the lifestyle and dietary habits which changes the stomach lining. It may be useful to avoid the following:

  • High-fat diet
  • High-salt diet
  • Smoking

Consumption of alcohol can also leads to the chronic gastritis. A stressful lifestyle or a traumatic experience can also decreases the stomach’s ability to protect itself. In addition, the risk may increases if you have autoimmune diseases or certain illnesses like Crohn’s disease.

Diagnosis :

Doctor will ask about the medical history and the symptoms. A series of tests can be necessary,that includes the following:

  • A test for the bacteria that cause stomach ulcers
  • A stool test to look for stomach bleeding
  • A blood count and an anemia test
  • An endoscopy, in which a camera attached to a long tube is inserted into the mouth and down into the digestive tract

 

 

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Migraine headache:

Migraine headache has the specific changes within the brain. It causes severe head pain that is often accompanied by sensitivity to light, sound, or smells.

Migraine headaches usually are associated with sensitivity to sound, light, and smells. Some people have symptoms of nausea or vomiting. Migrane headache involves only one side of the head, but in some cases, patients may experience pain bilaterally or on both sides. The pain of a migraine is often described as throbbing or pounding and it may be made worse with physical exertion.

What is migraine with aura?

In some of the cases, patients with migraines can experience specific warning symptoms or an aura, prior to the onset of their headache. These warning symptoms can range from flashing lights or a blind spot in one eye to numbness or weakness involving one side of the body. It may last for several minutes, and then it resolves as the head pain begins or it may last until the headache resolves. For patients who have never experienced an aura, the symptoms can be frightening and can mimic the symptoms of a stroke.

Signs and Symptoms Of Migraine headaches:

The most common symptoms of migraine are:

  • Severely it often pounding, pain, usually on one side of the head
  • Nausea and or vomiting
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Sensitivity to sound
  • Eye pain

 Causes :

The specific cause of migraines is not known, but there may be fluctuations in certain neurotransmitters, chemicals that send messages between brain cells. These are the changes it  may predispose for some of the people to develop migraine headaches.

Risk factors :

 Almost 25% of the people get experiences a migraine headache at some point in their life. Most migraine sufferers are female. It is estimated after the adolescence, the ratio of female to male patients who experience the migraines is about 3:1. It seems that it to be a genetic predisposition to the migraine, as there is often has a strong family history of migraine in the patients with this disorder.

Treatments for migraine headaches:

Treatment for the migraine headaches will depends upon how frequently the headaches may occur and how long the headaches can last.

Prognosis for a person with migraines:

Most of the people who have this migraine headache can find that the headaches may be controlled with the preventive medications and lifestyle changes. Diagnosis of migraine will need to be aware of how their lifestyle may directly impact the frequency and severity of their headache. Controlling migraine triggers may provide substantial benefit. It can be identified as that the patients get older, and aslo there may be a decrease in the frequency of this type of headache and they may disappear after a number of years.

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What is a hernia?

Hernia occurs when an organ pushes through an opening in the muscle or tissue that holds it certain place. For example, the intestines may break through a weakened area in the abdominal wall.

Hernias are commonly occurs in the abdomen, but they can also appear in the upper thigh, belly button, and groin areas. Most hernias are not immediately life threatening, but they don’t go away on their own and can require surgery to prevent potentially dangerous complications.

Types Of Hernia:

Inguinal hernia:

Inguinal hernias will occurs when the intestines are pushed through a weak spot or tear in the lower abdominal wall, often in the inguinal canal.

The inguinal canal is found in your groin. In men, it is the area where the spermatic cord passes from the abdomen to the scrotum. This cord holds up the testicles. In women, inguinal canal it contains a ligament  helps to hold the uterus in the place.

Hiatal hernia :

A hiatal hernia occurs when part of your stomach protrudes up through the diaphragm into your chest. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle that helps you breathe by contracting and drawing air into the lungs. It separates the organs in your abdomen from those in your chest.

Umbilical hernia:

In an umbilical hernia, part of the small intestine passes through the abdominal wall near the navel. Common in newborns, it also commonly afflicts obese women or those who have had many children.

Incisional hernia:

Incisional hernias can occur after you’ve had abdominal surgery. Your intestines may push through the incision scar or the surrounding, weakened tissue.

Causes a hernia:

Combination of muscle weakness and the strain gets cause of hernia. Depending on this cause, a hernia can be developed quickly or over a long period of time.

Common causes of muscle weakness include:

  • Failure of the abdominal wall to close properly in the womb, which is a congenital defect
  • Age
  • Chronic coughing
  • Damage from injury or surgery

Symptoms of a hernia:

Some of the common symptoms of a hernia is a bulge or lump in the affected area. In the case of an inguinal hernia, you may notice a lump on either side of your pubic bone where your groin and thigh meet. Also need to feel the hernia by the touch when you are standing up.

Other common symptoms of an inguinal hernia include:

  • Pain or discomfort in the affected area (usually the lower abdomen), especially when bending over, coughing, or lifting
  • Weakness, pressure, or a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen
  • A burning, gurgling, or aching sensation at the site of the bulge

Other symptoms of a hiatal hernia include:

  • Acid reflux, which is when stomach acid moves backward into the esophagus causing a burning sensation
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty swallowing

Diagnosis of Hernia :

Inguinal or incisional hernias are usually diagnosed through a physical examination. Doctor may feel for a bulge in the abdomen or groin that it gets larger when you stand, cough or strain.

If you have a hiatal hernia, your doctor may diagnose it with a barium X-ray or endoscopy. These tests allow your doctor to see the internal location of your stomach:

A barium X-ray is a series of X-ray pictures of your digestive tract. The pictures are recorded after you’ve finished drinking a liquid solution containing barium, which shows up well on the X-ray images.

An endoscopy involves threading a small camera attached to a tube down your throat and into your esophagus and stomach.

Preventing a hernia:

Prevention tips include:

  • Not smoking
  • Seeing your doctor when you’re sick to avoid developing a persistent cough
  • Maintaining a healthy body weight
  • Avoiding straining during bowel movements or urination
  • lifting objects with your knees and not your back
  • Avoiding lifting weights that are too heavy for you
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Heart bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass surgery is used to replace the damaged arteries in the heart muscle. A surgeon uses blood vessels taken from another area of your body to repair the damaged arteries.

This surgery is done when coronary arteries become blocked or damaged. These Arteries may supply the heart with an oxygenated blood. If these arteries are blocked or blood flow is restricted, then the heart doesn’t work properly. This can lead to heart failure.

Types of heart bypass surgery:

Doctor will recommend a certain type of bypass surgery that depends on how many of the arteries are blocked.

  • Single bypass: only one artery is blocked
  • Double bypass: two arteries are blocked
  • Triple bypass: three arteries are blocked
  • Quadruple bypass: four arteries are blocked

Risk of having a heart attack, heart failure, or any other cardiac issues will depends on the number of arteries that are blocked. Blockage in more arteries also means that the surgery may take longer or become more complex.

Causes:

When a material in the blood (plaque) builds up on the arterial walls, less blood flows into the heart muscle. The muscle is more likely to become exhausted and fail if it’s not receiving enough blood. Any damage this creates most often affects the left ventricle, the heart’s primary pump. Doctor will recommend to have heart bypass surgery if the coronary arteries has too narrowed or blocked that will runs in a high risk of the heart attack.

This condition is called coronary artery disease, or atherosclerosis. Doctor will recommend bypass surgery when the blockage is too severe to manage with the medication or other treatments.

Risks:

Any open-heart surgery,heart bypass surgery that carries risks. All surgeries come with the chance of problems. There is still a risk for some complications after surgery. These complications could include:

  • Bleeding
  • Arrhythmia
  • Blood Clots
  • Chest Pain
  • Infection
  • Kidney Failure
  • Low-Grade Fever
  • Temporary Or Permanent Memory Loss
  • Heart Attack Or Stroke

 Diagnosis:

Some medical conditions can complicate surgery or eliminate it as a possibility.

Conditions that can cause complications include:

  • Diabetes
  • Emphysema
  • Kidney Disease
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)

Discuss these issues with the doctor before scheduling the surgery. Also need to talk about the surgery with the family, medical history and also any prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medications are taking. Planned surgery outcomes are usually better than emergency surgery.

Preparation:

Doctor recommends heart bypass surgery, they will give you complete instructions on how to prepare. If the surgery was scheduled in advance it is not an emergency procedure, also to have several preoperative appointments will be asked about the health and the family medical history. Also need to undergo for several tests to help the doctor to get an accurate picture of your health. These test may also include:

  • Blood Samples
  • Chest X-Ray
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG Or EKG)
  • Angiogram
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Septoplasty

Septoplasty is a surgical procedure is done to fix a deviated nasal septum. A deviated septum will occurs with the cartilage and it separates the nostrils out of the position. This can cause breathing problems, nosebleeds, and pain.

The main goal of septoplasty is to correct the alignment of your septum in order to improve airflow through your nose.

Septoplasty is an outpatient procedure and it can be done either local or general anesthesia.

The septum is the wall of bone and cartilage that divides your nose into two separate nostrils. A deviated septum occurs when the septum is moved to one side of your nose. Some people are born with a deviated septum, but it can also be caused by an injury to the nose. Most of the people with a deviated septum has one nasal passage that’s much smaller than the other. This can cause difficulty in breathing. Other symptoms of a deviated septum may include frequent nosebleeds and facial pain. Surgery is the only way to fix a deviated septum.

Septoplasty is to correct a deviated septum. Septoplasty will straightens the septum, which is allowing for better airflow through the nose.

Septoplasty Procedure:-

A septoplasty takes anywhere from 30 to 90 minutes to complete, depending on the complexity of the condition. In a typical procedure, the surgeon will make an incision on one side of the nose to access the septum. Then it is needed to lift up the mucous membrane, which is the protective covering of the septum. Then, the deviated septum will be moved into the right position.

Stiches may uses it to hold the septum and membrane in the place. However, packing the nose with cotton is sometimes enough to keep them in position.

Potential Risks of a Septoplasty:-

Some of the people needs a second surgery if they are unsatisfied with the results. Other risks that are associated with this septoplasty are very rare, but they can include are as follows:

  • Bleeding
  • Scarring
  • Perforation of the septum, happens to a hole forms in the septum
  • An altered nose shape
  • A discoloration of the nose
  • A decreased sense of smell

Excessive bleeding and infection are possible risks of any surgery. Keeping the nose very clean and need to wash the hands frequently then it reduces these risks.

Recovering from a Septoplasty:-

Septoplasty is performed as an outpatient procedure unless there will be major complications arise. This means that you’ll be able to go home on the same day as the procedure, once the anesthesia has worn off. Nose will get swollen, painful, and packed by using cotton to control the bleeding. The packing can be removed a day or two after surgery. Doctor will prescribe pain medication as needed.

Tips for a quicker recovery include:

  • Elevating your head at night to keep the swelling down
  • Not blowing your nose for at least three days after surgery
  • Wearing shirts that button up in the front so you won’t have to pull clothing over your head.

The wound on the nose will heal fairly and quickly, the breathing also to improve shortly after the procedure. However, the overall healing process can be slow. Cartilage and other nasal tissues can be take up to a year that to settle into their new shape.

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Obesity

Obesity is an excess of body fat. It is difficult to directly measure body fat. Body mass index (BMI) is a popular method of defining a healthy weight. BMI should be used as a guide, along with waist size, to help estimate the amount of body fat.

BMI estimates a healthy weight based on your height. It considers both the height and weight as well, for more accurate guide than the body weight alone.

To calculate your BMI:

  • Multiply your weight in pounds by 703
  • Divide that answer by your height in inches
  • Divide that answer by your height in inches again

Then use the chart below to see what category your BMI falls into.

BMI CATEGORY
Below 18.5 Underweight
18.5 – 24.9 Healthy
25.0 – 29.9 Overweight
30.0 – 39.9 Obese
Over 40 Morbidly obese

Obesity can shorten your life.

It can also put you at risk of developing a number of conditions. These include:

  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Heart disease
  • Some forms of cancer

Some of the most common reasons for obesity are:

  • Genetic influences:
  • Physiological influences:
  • Food intake and eating disorders
  • Lifestyle:

If you lead a sedentary lifestyle, you are at a higher risk of becoming obese.

Your weight history: If you were overweight as a child or adolescent, you are more likely to be obese as an adult.

Pregnancy: Pregnancy can contribute to obesity. Many women weigh more after each pregnancy.

Drugs: Some drugs can cause obesity. These include steroid hormones and many drugs used to treat psychiatric conditions.

Symptoms:-

The primary warning sign of obesity is an above-average body weight.

If you are obese, need to experience the following:

  • Trouble sleeping
  • Sleep apnea. This is a condition in which breathing is irregular and periodically stops during sleep.
  • Shortness of breath
  • Varicose veins
  • Skin problems caused by moisture that accumulates in the folds of your skin
  • Gallstones
  • Osteoarthritis in weight-bearing joints, especially the knees

Obesity increases your risk for:

  • High blood pressure,
  • High levels of blood sugar (diabetes)
  • High cholesterol
  • High triglycerides levels

Diagnosis:-

Obesity is diagnosed by calculating your BMI. BMI is calculated mainly by height and weight. A BMI of 30 or more defines obesity. In general, this means your body weight is 35% to 40% more than your ideal body weight.

Your body fat also can be calculated by using skin calipers. Calipers are an instrument that measures the thickness of your skin.

Body shape is also important. People who carry most of their weight around the waist (apple shaped) have a greater risk of heart disease and diabetes than do people with big hips and thighs (pear shaped). Waist circumference is a good measure of abdominal obesity. Women with a waist more than 35 inches or men with a waist more than 40 inches are at increased risk.

Prevention:-

To prevent the obesity, need to maintain a healthy body weight, as well as eat  well-balanced diet and do follow exercise regularly.

Preventing obesity is important. Once fat cells form, they remain in your body forever. Although you can reduce the size of fat cells, you cannot get rid of them.

Treatment:-

Weight reduction is achieved by:

  • Consuming fewer calories
  • Increasing activity and exercise

 

 

 

 

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