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As soon as you quit smoking, body begins to repair itself. Typical benefits of quitting are as follows:

Within 6 hours:

  • Heart rate slows and the blood pressure becomes more stable.

Within a day:

  • Almost all of the nicotine is out of your bloodstream.
  • The level of carbon monoxide in the blood has been dropped and the oxygen can be more easily will reach into the heart and muscles.
  • Fingertips become warmer and the hands will be steadier.

Within a week:

  • Sense of taste and smell may improve.
  • After quitting smoking, lungs gets natural cleaning system that started to recover, for becoming better at removing mucus, tar and dust from lungs (exercise helps to clear out the lungs).
  • Higher blood levels of protective antioxidants such as vitamin C.

Within 3 months:

  • After 3 months coughing and wheezing is less.
  • The immune system is beginning its recovery so the body will be better at fighting off infection.
  • Blood will be less thick and sticky and blood flow into the hands and feet has improved.

Within 6 months:

  • After 6 months they are less likely to be coughing up phlegm.
  • After 6 months they likely to feel less stressed than when they were smoking in the past.

After 1 year:

  • After 1 year lungs are now healthier and you will be breathing easier than if you’d kept smoking.

Within 2 to 5 years:

  • There is a large drop in your risk of heart attack and stroke and this risk will continue to gradually decrease over time.
  • For women, within five years, the risk of cervical cancer is the same as someone who has never smoked.

After 10 years:

  • After 10 years the risk of lung cancer will be lower than that of a continuing smoker (provided the disease was not already present when you quit).

After 15 years:

  • Risk of heart attack and stroke is close to that of a person who has never smoked.
  • How fast and how well the body recovers and it depends on the number of cigarettes normally they smoke and how long they have been smoking, and also have a smoking-related disease.
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Dandruff

Dandruff is a condition of the scalp that causes flakes on the skin to appear. Dandruff is a common condition, which is marked by the itching. In some of the cases it can be embarrassing and may not be easy to treat.

Causes of dandruff:-

The following are factors that may contribute to dandruff:

Not enough hair brushing:-

People who didn’t comb or brush their hair regularly may have slightly higher risk of having dandruff because, they are not aiding the shedding of skin that combing or brushing provides.

Yeast:-

People that has the yeast might  have the risk of having dandruff, so it is the logic to assume that yeast may play a part. Yeast sensitive people who get dandruff often will find it gets better during the warmer months and worse during the winter. UVA light from the sun counteracts the yeast. During the winter season, the skin gets very drier because of the cold air and also in overheated rooms (exposure to extreme temperatures), making the dandruff more likely. So sometimes it is not that easy to know whether it is yeast or just dry skin.

Dry skin:-

People with dry skin may tend to get dandruff more often. In winter the cold air is combined with the overheated rooms it is a common cause of having the symptoms like itchy, flaking skin. People with the dandruff may caused by the dry skin which tends to have small flakes of dandruff, but the flakes are not oily.

Certain skin conditions:-

People who has psoriasis, eczema and some of the other skin disorders that tends to have  dandruff much more frequently than the other people.

Some illnesses:-

Adults who has the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and some other neurological illnesses are more prone to having dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. Patients who are recovering from the heart attacks and strokes and some of the people with weak immune systems may have the dandruff more often than other people.

Reaction to hair or skin care products:-

Some people react to some hair care products with a red, itchy, scaling scalp. Many experts say that shampooing too often may cause dandruff as it can irritate the scalp.

Diet:-

Some of the experts mean that the people didn’t consume enough foods that contain zinc, B vitamins, and some types of fats are more prone to dandruff.

Mental stress:-

Experts believe there may be a link between stress and many skin problems.

 Diagnosing dandruff:

 If you need not to consult a doctor to diagnose the dandruff. You can do this yourself. If you have find the characteristic of white flakes on your scalp, you have the dandruff.

If you still want to see a doctor, no special preparations are needed to help the doctor diagnose dandruff. Diagnosis will be confirmed by looking at the scalp and skin. Anyone who might be start using some new hair care product may find it useful if they bring the bottles with them.

If your dandruff gets no better after some weeks of self-treatment, you should then consider seeing your doctor, especially if there are red, swollen patches on the scalp.

Treatments for dandruff:-

Mainly two factors should be considered when you get to treat dandruff:

  • Your age
  • The severity of your dandruff.

Your aim will be to stop the dandruff by slowing down the reproduction of skin cells, or counteract the yeast production that might be the cause.

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What is a total knee replacement?

Total knee replacement is the surgical procedure where the diseased knee joint is replaced with an artificial material. The knee is a hinge joint which provides motion at the point where the thigh meets the lower leg. The thighbone (or femur) abuts the large bone of the lower leg (tibia) at the knee joint. During a total knee replacement, the end of the femur bone is removed and replaced with a metal shell. End of the lower leg bone (tibia) is removed and then it is replaced with a channeled plastic piece of metal stem. Depending on the condition ofthe kneecap portion of the knee joint, a plastic “button” may also be added under the kneecap surface. The artificial components of total knee replacement are as the prosthesis.

What patients should consider a total knee replacement?

Total knee replacement surgery is considered for patients whose knee joints have been damaged by either progressive arthritis, trauma, or other rare destructive diseases of the joint. Common reason for the knee replacement is severe osteoarthritis of the knees.

Regardless of the cause of the damage to the joint, the resulting progressively increasing pain and stiffness and decreasing daily function lead the patient to consider total knee replacement. Decisions are regarding when to undergo knee replacement surgery are not easy. Patients should understand the risks as well as the benefits before making these decisions.

What are the risks for undergoing a total knee replacement?

Risks of total knee replacement include blood clots in the legs that can travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism). Pulmonary embolism may cause the shortness of breath, chest pain, and even shock. Other risks include urinary tract infection, nausea and vomiting (usually related to pain medication), chronic knee pain and stiffness, bleeding into the knee joint, nerve damage,blood vessel injury, and infection of the knee which can require reoperation. Further, the risks of the anesthesia  may include potential heart, lung, kidney, and liver damage.

What is involved with the preoperative evaluation for total knee replacement?

Before the surgery, the joint adjacent of the diseased knee to be  carefully evaluated. This is important to ensure optimal outcome and recovery from the surgery. Replacing a knee joint that is adjacent to a severely damaged joint may not yield significant improvement in function as the nearby joint may become more painful if it is abnormal. Furthermore, all medications that the patient is taking are reviewed. Blood-thinning medications such as warfarin (Coumadin) and anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin may have to be adjusted or discontinued prior to surgery.

Routine blood tests of liver and kidney function and urine tests are been evaluated for the signs of anemia, infection, or abnormal metabolism.

Total Knee Replacement Surgery Recovery:-

Within 24 hours after surgery, a patient is encouraged to walk with the aid of a walker or other orthopedic device. A patient may stay in the hospital for 3 to 7 days. Patients who require extra attention or do not have home support may be transferred from the hospital to a rehabilitation center.

Physical Therapy After Knee Replacement Surgery:-

After discharge, outpatient physical therapy will be prescribed. A physical therapist will teach the patient:

  • Knee strengthening exercises
  • Knee stretches will inhibit with the development of scar tissue, that can be reduce the range of motion
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What Is a Tumor?

Tumor is a mass of tissue that is formed by accumulation of abnormal cells. Normally, the cells grow old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. Tumor cells will grow even though the body does not need them, and unlike normal old cells, they don’t die. As this process goes on, the tumor continues to grow as more and more cells are added to the mass.

Primary brain tumors may emerge from various cells that to make up the brain and the central nervous system are named for the kind of cell in which they form in the first. The common types of adult brain tumors are gliomas as in astrocytic tumors. These tumors might form from astrocytes and also the other types of glial cells, which helps the cells to keep nerves healthy.

There are two main types of tumors: –

  • Benign tumors
  • Malignant or cancerous tumors.

Benign tumors:-

A benign tumor is not a cancerous tumor. Unlike this cancer tumors, a non cancerous tumor are unable to spread throughout the body. A non malignant tumor gets serious, they are to be pressed on the primary nerve, a main artery, or compresses brain matter. Benign tumors will respond well for the treatment and the prognosis is usually favorable.

Most Common Types of Benign Tumors

  • Adenomas (epithelial tissue that covers the organs and glands)
  • Meningiomas (brain and spinal cord)
  • Fibromas or fibroids (connective tissue of any organ – most commonly found in the uterus)
  • Papillomas (skin, breast, cervix, and mucus membranes)
  • Lipomas (fat cells)
  • Nevi (moles)
  • Myomas (muscle tissue)
  • Hemangiomas (blood vessels and skin)
  • Neuromas (nerves)
  • Osteochondromas (bones)

It Depends on the location and size of a benign tumor, treatment might not be necessary. Then the doctors will monitor it, and track the patient symptoms and do tests at specific intervals.

Benign tumors are surrounded by a protective “sac”  mechanism that performed by the immune system  that segregates it from the rest of the body and enables it to be easily removed.

Malignant Tumor:-

Malignant tumors are formed in abnormal cells are highly unstable and also they travel through the blood stream, circulatory system and lymphatic system. Malignant cells don’t have the chemical adhesion molecules to anchor them to the original growth site that benign tumors possess.

Many of the suspected causes of cancer are widely accepted by the medical community while others are not. Obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, environmental pollution, heavy metal exposure and household toxins are some of the culprits that might leads to the  cancer in the body.

Most Common Types of Malignant Tumors:-

  • Sarcomas (connective tissues such as muscle, tendon, fat, and cartilage)
  • Carcinomas (organs and gland tissue such as the breast, cervix, prostate, lung, and thyroid)

Malignant tumors might not have the symptoms initially but at the first indication it has something that not be right or it may be the detection of a painless lump. These types of tumors are   “elastic,” which will enables them to grow fairly large before they detected.

If they grow and begin to press against the organs, blood vessels and nerves, pain and general soreness at the site it may occur.

Pre-Cancerous Tumors:-

Precancerous tumors fall between benign and malignant. These types of growths may have the markers that to be malignant but they are not yet apparent. These are not to be characterized as malignant unless irrepressible cell growth ensues.

Prevention:-              

The more you know about prevention, the better you  can guard against all tumor growth in the body. Boosting the  body’s immune system through diet, exercise and healthy lifestyle choices are of defense.

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Aortic Valve Replacement Surgery


Aortic valve replacement is a procedure in which aortic valve is replaced with an artificial heart valve. The aortic valve can be affected by a range of diseases. The valve can either become leaky (aortic insufficiency) or partially blocked (aortic stenosis). Current aortic valve replacement also includes in  open heart surgery via a sternotomy, minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

The aortic valve functions as  one-way valve between the heart and to rest of the body. Then the blood is pumped from the left ventricle of the heart, through the valve, and down the aorta, which in turn supplies blood to all of the organs in the body .Between heart contractions, the valve closes, preventing blood from flowing backwards into the heart.

The function of the aortic valve is then twofold:

  • It provides a route for which blood can leave the heart.
  • It prevents blood that it has already left the heart from leaking backwards into the heart.

Damage to the aortic valve can occurs  congenital defect, the natural aging process, and from the infection or scarring. This damage may cause the valve either in “leak”, resulting in “aortic insufficiency” or to become it “restricted” and not open fully, resulting in “aortic stenosis”. Both aortic insufficiency and aortic stenosis create an extra workload for the heart. Ultimately resulting in weakening of the heart muscle and eventual heart failure. Once if the  valve becomes damaged, it might need to be replaced, in order to prevent from the heart failure and premature death.

Surgery:-

Surgery to replace an aortic valve slideshow.gif is done for aortic valve stenosis and aortic valve regurgitation. During the surgery, the damaged valve will be removed and it is replaced with an artificial valve. The valve replacement is typically an open-heart surgery.

A minimally invasive surgery or a catheter procedure to replace the aortic valve may be an option for some people.

How is the surgery done?

During the open-heart valve surgery, doctor makes a large incision in the chest. Blood is circulated outside of the body through a machine to add oxygen to it (cardiopulmonary bypass or heart-lung machine). The heart will be cooled to slow or stop the heartbeat. So that the heart will be protected from damage while the surgery is done to replace the valve with an artificial valve.

When it is necessary to replace the aortic valve?

The aortic valve is to be replaced for two reasons:

  • The valve becomes narrow (aortic stenosis) and then the opening of the valve becomes smaller, obstructing the flow of blood out of the heart
  • The valve is leaky (aortic regurgitation) then the valve allows blood to flow back through into the heart

The problems can get worse over time and in severe cases can lead to life-threatening problems such as heart failure, if left untreated.

 How is an aortic valve replacement carried out?

An aortic valve replacement is to be carried out under the general anaesthetic. This means you’ll be asleep during the operation and won’t feel any pain while it’s carried out.

During the procedure:

  • A large cut (incision) about 25cm long is made in your chest to access your heart – although sometimes a smaller cut may be made
  • Heart is stopped and a heart-lung (bypass) machine is used to take over the job of the heart during the operation
  • The damaged or faulty valve is removed and replaced with the new one
  • your heart is restarted and the opening in your chest is closed

Risks of an aortic valve replacement:-

An aortic valve replacement is a big operation and, like any type of surgery, carries a risk of complications.

Risks of an aortic valve replacement includes are as follows:

  • Wound, lung, bladder or heart valve infections
  • Blood clots
  • Strokes
  • A temporarily irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
  • Reduced kidney function for a few days

The risk of dying from an aortic valve replacement is around 1-3%, although this risk is much smaller than that of leaving severe aortic valve problems untreated.

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Endoscopy:

Endoscopy procedure is an instruments to view and operate  the internal organs and vessels of the body. It allows surgeons to view problems within the body without making large incisions.

A surgeon will inserts an endoscope through a small cut, or an opening in the body such as the mouth. An endoscope is a flexible tube with an attached camera that allows your doctor to see. Doctor can use forceps (tongs) and scissors on the endoscope to operate or remove tissue for biopsy.

Why do I need an Endoscopy?

Doctor may order an endoscopy to visually examine an organ. An endoscope’s lighted camera allows the doctor to view potential problems without a large incision. A screen in the operating room will absorb by the doctor to see exactly what the endoscope sees.

Doctor may suspect that an organ or specific area of the body is infected, damaged, or cancerous. In this case, Doctor may order an endoscopic biopsy. An endoscopic biopsy involves by using forceps in endoscope to remove a small sample of tissue. They will send the sample to a lab for testing.

Doctor will review the symptoms, perform a physical examination, and possibly order some blood tests prior to an endoscopy. These tests will help the  doctor gain a more accurate understanding of the possible cause of the symptoms. These tests may help them to determine that if the problems can be treated without an endoscopy or surgery.

What are the types of Endoscopy?

Endoscopies fall into categories, based on the area of the body that they investigate:

  • Arthroscopy is used to examine the joints. The scope is inserted through a small incision near the joint be examined.
  • Bronchoscopy is used to examine the lungs. The scope is inserted into your nose or mouth.
  • Colonoscopy is used to examine the colon. The scope is inserted through your anus.
  • Cystoscopy is used to examine the bladder. The scope is inserted through urethra, which is the hole through which you urinate.
  • Enteroscopy is used to examine the small intestine. The scope is inserted through the mouth or anus.
  • Hysteroscopy is used for the examining the inside of The scope is inserted through the vagina.
  • Laparoscopy is used to examine the abdominal or pelvic area. The scope is inserted through a small incision near the area that’s being examined.
  • Laryngoscopy is used to examine voice box, or larynx. The scope is inserted through your mouth or nostril.
  • Mediastinoscopy is used to examine the area between the lungs that are called as “mediastinum.” The scope is inserted through an incision above the breastbone.
  • Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is used to examine esophagus and upper intestinal tract. The scope is inserted through the mouth.
  • Ureteroscopy is used to examine the ureter. The scope is inserted through  urethra.

What are the risks of an Endoscopy?

Endoscopy has a lower risk of bleeding and infection than the open surgery. Still, endoscopy is a medical procedure, so it has some risk of bleeding, infection, and other rare complications such as:

  • chest pain
  • damage to your organs, including possible perforation
  • fever
  • persistent pain in the area of endoscopy
  • redness and swelling at the incision site

What happens after an Endoscopy?

Most endoscopies are outpatient procedures. This means you can go home the same day.

Doctor will close incision wounds with stitches and properly bandage them immediately after the procedure. He will give you instructions on how to care for this wound on own.

Some procedures, such as a colonoscopy, may leave you slightly uncomfortable. It may require some time to feel well enough to go about your daily business.

If the doctor suspects a cancerous growth, they’ll perform a biopsy during your endoscopy. The results will take a few days.Doctor will discuss the results with you after they get them back from the laboratory.

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Osteoarthritis of the Knee:-

Age is the major risk factor for osteoarthritis of the knee, young people can get it, too. For some of the individuals, it may be hereditary. Osteoarthritis of the knee can also results from injury or infection or even from being overweight.

What Is Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis, are commonly known as wear and tear arthritis, it is a condition in which the natural cushioning between the joints cartilage wears away. When it happens, the bones of the joints rub more closely against to one another with less of the shock-absorbing benefits of cartilage. Major rubbing results in pain, swelling, stiffness, decreased ability to move and, sometimes it will be formation of bone spurs.

Who Gets Osteoarthritis of the Knee?

Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. It can also occur even in young people, the chance of developing osteoarthritis rises after age 45.

What Causes Knee Osteoarthritis?

Mostly,the common cause of osteoarthritis of the knee is age. Several factors will increase the risk of developing significant arthritis at an earlier age.

  • Weight
  • Heredity
  • Gender
  • Repetitive stress injuries
  • Athletics
  • Other illnesses

What Are the Symptoms of Knee Osteoarthritis?

Symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee may include:

  • Pain that increases when you are active, but gets a little better with rest
  • Swelling
  • Feeling of warmth in the joint
  • Stiffness in the knee, especially in the morning or when you have been sitting for a while.
  • Decrease in mobility of the knee, might it may be difficult to get in and out of chairs or cars, use the stairs, or walk.
  • Creaking, crackly sound that is heard when the knee moves.

How Is Osteoarthritis of the Knee Diagnosed?

Diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis will begin with a physical exam by the doctor. Doctor will also take the medical history and will note the symptoms. Doctor may order additional testing, which are as follows:

  • X-rays, which can show bone and cartilage damage as well as the presence of bone spurs
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans

How Is Osteoarthritis of the Knee Treated?

The primary treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee are to relieve the pain and return mobility. The treatment plan will typically include a combination of the following:

  • Weight loss
  • Exercise
  • Pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Injections of corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid into the knee
  • Alternative therapies
  • Using devices such as braces
  • Physical and occupational therapy.
  • Surgery
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How much are Type1 Diabetic prone to diabetic disorders?

Many different things can cause hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, but in people with type 1 diabetes, the root cause is typically an autoimmune problem. People whose genes make them susceptible to autoimmune diseases will frequently develop more than one disorders.

The immune system doesn’t recognize the beta cell [in the pancreas] or the thyrocyte [in the thyroid] as belonging to self, and so they are attacked.

Hyperthyroidism:

The most common cause of an overproduction of thyroid hormone in people with type 1 is Graves’ disease. Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body to produce an antibody, called thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI), that overrides the normal regulation of the thyroid.

Symptoms:

You may have an increased heart rate and heart palpitations. Because of metabolism will speeds up, and may feel warm, lose weight, or have difficulty falling asleep. “You feel amped up,. “Like if your car has six cylinders, you may feel like you’re on eight cylinders.”

Hypothyroidism :

Hashimoto’s disease is also an autoimmune disorder common in people with type 1 diabetes. In fact, Hashimoto’s disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism .In this case, the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, which interferes with its ability to produce enough thyroid hormone for the body.

Symptoms:

You may feel cold; have a slow heart rate; gain weight; experience fatigue, sluggishness, or an increased desire for sleep; become constipated; or notice your hair is thinning and dry. In the same car analogy, “instead of six cylinders, you feel like you have four.”

Testing Guide

Three common blood tests can measure blood levels of either the thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

TSH Test: Typically the first test used to see how the thyroid is working, this is considered the most accurate test for diagnosing thyroid dysfunction. Because TSH is released by the pituitary gland to stimulate the production of thyroid hormones, low test results (under 0.4 mIU/L) indicate hyperthyroidism. When test results are high (over 5.0 mIU/L), hypothyroidism is suspected.

As in type 1 diabetes, the body also produces thyroid antibodies that can be detected in the blood when an autoimmune reaction is occurring in the body. The two most common antibodies associated with hypothyroidism, anti-TPO and anti-TG, can increase the likelihood that someone will develop the disease. They each attack a different protein in the thyroid and can be useful in diagnosing Hashimoto’s disease.

Anti TPO antibodies should also be tested along with TSH when thyroid disorders are suspected .

Double Management

Food and medication interactions can also become an issue when you have to take synthetic thyroid hormone. “Patients with diabetes have enough issues with managing calories and food, but when they have thyroid disease thrown in, they have new issues”. Thyroid hormone does not mix well with calcium, soy, and iron. These tablets should be avoided with thyroid replacement therapy as it can hinder its absorption .

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