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Pneumonia is an infection which effects in one or both the lungs. It can be caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Pneumonia causes inflammation in your lung’s air sacs, or alveoli. The alveoli fill with fluid or pus, making it difficult to breathe.

Pneumonia can make a person very sick or even cause death. Although the disease can occur in young and healthy people, it is most dangerous for older adults, babies, and people with other diseases or impaired immune systems.

What are the symptoms of pneumonia?

Symptoms of pneumonia will be range from mild to life-threatening. The severity of  pneumonia usually depends on:

  • The cause of inflammation
  • The type of organism causing the infection
  • Age
  • General health

The general symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can develop quickly and may include:

  • Chest pain
  • Shaking chills
  • Fever
  • Dry cough
  • Wheezing
  • Muscle aches
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Rapid breathing
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Difficulty breathing

Types and causes of pneumonia:

The major types of pneumonia are:

Bacterial Pneumonia:

Bacterial pneumonia can affect anyone at any age. It can be developed on its own or after a serious cold or flu. The most common cause of the bacterial pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacterial pneumonia is caused by Chlamydophila pneumonia or Legionella pneumophila. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is sometimes seen in those who have weak immune systems due to illnesses like AIDS or cancer.

Viral Pneumonia:

In most of the cases, respiratory viruses can cause pneumonia, especially in the young children and for elderly. Pneumonia is usually not serious and lasts a short time. However, flu virus can cause the viral pneumonia which to be severe or fatal. It’s especially harmful to the  pregnant women or individuals with heart or lung issues. Invading bacteria can cause complications with viral pneumonia.

 

Mycoplasma Pneumonia:

Mycoplasma organisms are not like viruses or bacteria, but they have traits common to both. They are the smallest agents of disease that affect humans. Mycoplasmas generally it can be caused by  mild cases of pneumonia, mostly it happens in older children and young adults.

Preventing pneumonia:

There are two available vaccines to prevent pneumococcal disease (the bacterial infection that is the most common cause of pneumonia):

  • pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar)
  • pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumovax)

Prevnar is administered as a part of normal infant immunization procedure and it is recommended for the children less than 2 years of age or between 2 and 4 years with certain medical conditions.

Pneumovax is provided for the adults who are at an increased risk of developing the pneumococcal pneumonia, such as older adults, people with diabetes, those with chronic heart, lung, or kidney diseases, alcoholics, smokers, and those are without a spleen. The pneumonia vaccine may not completely prevent older adults from getting pneumonia, but it can reduce the severity of any future pneumonia cases.



Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease is a slow progressive loss of  kidney function .Eventually, the patient has permanent kidney failure.

Chronic kidney disease, also known as chronic renal failure, chronic renal disease, or chronic kidney failure, is much more widespread than people realize; it often goes undetected and undiagnosed until the disease is well advanced.

Kidney failure advances and the organ’s functioning  is severely impaired, dangerous levels of waste and fluid can rapidly build up in the body. Treatment is aimed by stopping or slowing down the progression of the disease ,this is usually done by controlling its underlying cause.

Chronic kidney disease symptoms:

Chronic kidney failure, is opposed to have an acute kidney failure is slow and gradually progressive the disease. Even if one kidney stops functioning, the other can carry out normal functions. The disease is fair well advanced and the condition has to become severe that signs and symptoms are noticeable by which time most of the damage is irreversible.

The most common signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease include :

  • Anemia
  • Blood in urine
  • Dark urine
  • Decreased mental alertness
  • Decreased urine output
  • Edema – swollen feet, hands, and ankles (face if edema is severe)
  • Fatigue (tiredness)
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Insomnia
  • Itchy skin, can become persistent

Chronic kidney disease causes:

Kidneys carry out the complex system of filtration in our bodies – excess waste and fluid material are removed from the blood and excreted from the body.

In the majority of cases, progressive kidney damage is the result of a chronic disease (a long-term disease), such as:

  • Diabetes : Chronic kidney disease is linked to diabetes types 1 and 2. If the patient’s diabetes is not well controlled, excess sugar (glucose) can accumulate in the blood. Kidney disease is not common during the first 10 years of diabetes; it more commonly occurs 15-25 years after diagnosis of diabetes.
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure) : High blood pressure can damage the glomeruli – parts of the kidney involved in filtering waste products.
  • Kidney diseases: Including polycystic kidney disease, pyelonephritis, or glomerulonephritis.
  • Kidney artery stenosis : The renal artery narrows or is blocked before it enters the kidney.
  • Malaria and yellow fever : Known to cause impaired kidney function.
  • Fetal developmental problem : If the kidneys do not develop properly in the unborn baby while it is developing in the womb.

Chronic kidney disease diagnosis:

  • Blood test : It may be ordered to determine whether waste substances are being adequately filtered out. If levels of urea and creatinine are persistently high, the doctor will most likely diagnose end-stage kidney disease.
  • Urine test : A urine test helps find out whether there is either blood or protein in the urine.
  • Kidney scans : kidney scans may include a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, computed tomography (CT) scan, or an ultrasound scan.It is to determine that there are any blockages in the urine flow.These scans can be reveal the size and shape of the kidneys in advanced stage of kidney disease .The kidneys are smaller and have an uneven shape.
  • Kidney biopsy : a small sample of kidney tissue is extracted and examined for cell damage. Analysis of kidney tissue makes it easier to a precise diagnosis of kidney disease.

Chest X-ray –  Here, it is to check for pulmonary edema (fluid retained in the lungs).

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) – GFR is a test that measures the glomerular filtration rate – it compares the levels of waste products in the patient’s blood and urine. GFR measures that how many milliliters of waste the kidneys can filter per minute. Kidneys of healthy individuals can typically filter it over 90 ml per minute.

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What Is Asthma?

Asthma is a chronic (long-term) lung disease that which inflames and narrows in the airways. Asthma causes recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe), chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. Cough may often occur at night or early in the morning. Asthma will affect the people of all ages, but it most often starts during childhood.

Tips to Prevent from Asthma Attacks:

  1. Keep an allergy-proof covers on the pillows and mattresses:

Wash bedding area weekly in hot water (above 130 degrees F) to get the rid of dust mites and also use a dehumidifier to reduce the excess moisture and help to prevent mold in home.

  1. Remove carpets and stuffed toys from bedrooms:

If carpeting cannot be removed, vacuum at least twice a week with a cleaner equipped with a HEPA air filter.

  1. Fix leaky faucets:

Mold is a common asthma trigger. To reduce mold in your home, remove household plants and keep bathrooms clean and dry by opening a window or using a bathroom fan during showers or baths.

  1. Avoid the areas where people smoke:

Breathing smoke on clothing, furniture or drapes can trigger to have an asthma attack. Be sure to ask for a smoke-free hotel room when traveling.

  1. Avoid harsh cleaning products and chemicals:

Fumes from household cleaners can trigger asthma. Avoid inhaling fumes at home and prevent exposure away from home as much as possible.

  1. Reduce stress:

Intense emotions and worry may often leads to worsen asthma symptoms so take few steps to relieve the stress in life. Make time for things you enjoy doing – and for relaxation.

  1. Pay attention to air quality:

Extremely hot and humid weather and poor air quality can exacerbate asthma symptoms for many people. Limit outdoor activity when these conditions exist or a pollution alert has been issued.

 

  1. Take control of seasonal allergies:

Allergies and asthma are closely related, so consult the doctor if you have hay fever. Use medications as directed and stay inside as much as possible when pollen counts are high.

  1. Make sure that people around to know you have asthma.

It’s important for family members, friends, co-workers, teachers, and coaches to be able to recognize symptoms of an asthma attack – and know what to do if one occurs.

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The scorching heat during summer season can take a toll on the skin and hair making it dull and lifeless or prone to infections, skin tan. Here are few tips to prevent the damage of our skin and hair during summer season.

PHOTOPROTECTION:

  • Use an umbrella, wide-brimmed hat or cap or a scarf to cover your face, hair and wear full sleeve clothing while going out in the sun.
  • Adequate and repeated application of sunscreen of spf 30+ over the face, neck, hands and other sun-exposed areas of the body atleast 30 minutes before stepping outdoors. If you are swimming, then keep re-applying as and when it gets washed out.
  • Sunscreen application will help in minimizing sun related diseases, sun related spots and also help in delaying the onset of fine lines and
  • Sunglasses with uv-blocking filters are preferred.
  • Avoid outdoors between 11am to 2 pm which is the period of peak ultraviolet exposure.

ADEQUATE HYDRATION:

  • Drink plenty of water (atleast 8-10 glasses), fruit juices, or consume fruits containing ample water content like watermelon inorder to avoid dehydration as the body fluid is lost through sweat.

SKIN CARE:

  • Take bath twice a day and wash your face atleast thrice daily with an appropriate cleansing agent depending on your skin type.
  • Do not wear tight fitting clothes.
  • Use a light moisturizer to keep skin hydrated.
  • Use of makeup should be minimal during summer and the makeup has to be removed at the end of the day.
  • Increase the intake of foods or supplements rich in antioxidants such as Vitamin C, E, zinc, selenium inorder to protect the skin from the harmful uv rays of the sun.

HAIR CARE:

  1. Rinse your hair with a suitable shampoo and contitioner atleast thrice a week to prevent dandruff or folliculitis.
  2. Overnight application of hair oil on the scalp has to be avoided as it can aggravate dandruff and also cause pimples on the face.
  3. Hair oil should preferably be applied 30minutes prior to hairwash.
  4. Avoid hairdyes containing Paraphenylene diamine, as it can cause various allergies, pigmentation which are aggravated by sun.

 

Best Dermatologist In Nellore


Dr.Chetana Panabaka, M.D(DVL)

Visiting Fellow in Advanced Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery(NSC-Singapore)

Consultant Dermatologist & Aesthetic Physician
Simhapuri Hospitals

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